SLELO PRISM

Jumping Wrom

 

Video of Asian jumping worms. Claymation video of Asian jumping worms

Asian Jumping Worm Brochure

 DESCRIPTION:

The jumping worms (Amynthas spp.) is a term given to species in the family Megascolecidae. In New York three species (Amynthas agrestis, Amynthas tokioensis and Metaphire hilgendorphi) often co-invade a site. Like all earthworms, jumping worms were unintentionally introduced to North America, likely through infested nursery stock. 

DISTRIBUTION:

While they are now widespread throughout much of the US, they have only recently been documented in northern hardwood forests in WI, MN, and NY States. There are sightings reported to iMapInvasives in St. Lawrence County in Colton and Oneida County near Oneida Lake.

IMPACTS:

Often, earthworms are considered beneficial to soil health. This is true for European earthworms in some places such as gardens and agricultural fields but is definitely not the case for invasive Asian jumping worms. Jumping worms reproduce twice as fast as European earthworms, and consume soil organic matter so effectively and fast that the soil becomes very palletized, which dries out quickly. For a plant it is like trying to grow in gravel instead of soil. Plus, jumping worms contain heavy metals that may harm predators like birds, amphibians, and other worm species.

The loss of leaf litter and the erosion and subsiding of soils that result from a jumping worm infestation leads to greatly reduced forest regeneration and a loss of biodiversity across trophic levels including amphibians, birds, beneficial fungi, and understory plants. Jumping worms create bare soil in the forest, which paves the way for unwanted invasive plants such as garlic mustard and buckthorn. Watch a short video to learn more.

SPREAD POTENTIAL:

Jumping umping worms do not need to mate, and a single one can start a whole new population. They are easily spread through the movement of nursery stock, compost, vermiculutre, fishing bait, topsoil, well as gardening and landscaping equipment and shoe treads.

IDENTIFICATION:

Snake-like behavior
Jumping worms will thrash wildly when handled. Click here to view a video of this behavior.

Clitellum (band near the head)
The clitellum completely encircles the body, is milky white to gray, and smooth to the body (not raised) and located more towards the head. The common non-native European species have a raised, reddish clitellum that is more towards the middle of the body.

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Soil Signature: 

Granule soil that resembles coffee grounds is a sign of a jumping worm infestation.

Asian jumping worms cause the soil to become granular and look similar to coffee grounds.

CONTROL/ MANAGEMENT:

Currently, there are no methods known to control earthworms. Therefore, preventing their spread is most important. Below are some precautionary steps that can help slow their spread.

  • Buy bare root stock when possible and be wary of sharing /moving plants.
  • Do Not buy/use jumping worms for bait, vermicomposting or gardening.
  • Only buy compost that is heat-treated. Or heat in the sun for 3 days to a minimum temperature of 104 degree Fahrenheit.
  • Thoroughly clean garden tools, shoes, and vehicles.

Surveying for Jumping worm:

The best time to find jumping worms is late August or September when they have reached adult size. Search underneath leaf litter above the soil in forested and urban areas.

If you find Jumping Worms:

Note the location in which the worm was found.

Take close up photos of the specimen. Be sure to include a close up of the band around the body of the worm (clitellum).

Report sighting to iMapinvasives.org or your local Cornell Cooperative Extension.

You can check your property for jumping worms by using a mustard pour. 

Photo Credits: 

Title  photo by  Susan Day / UW Madison Arboretum

Asian worm clitellum photo by Wisconsin Master Gardener, European worm clitellum photo by Holger Casselmann

Granular soil photo by Bernadette Williams/ Wisconsin DNR

Mustard pour photo by Karen Ceballos, NY Master Naturalist Program Assistant, Cornell Department of Natural Resources

Resources: 

Jumping Worm Fact Sheet 

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PREVENTION
Prevent the introduction of invasive species into the SLELO PRISM.

EARLY DETECTION & RAPID RESPONSE
Rapidly detect new and recent invaders and eliminate all individuals within a specific area.

COOPERATION
Share resources, including funding personnel, equipment, information, and expertise.

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
Collect, utilize, and share information regarding surveys, infestations, control methods, monitoring, and research.

CONTROL
Control invasive species infestations by using best management practices, methods and techniques to include: ERADICATION (which is to eliminate all individuals and the seed bank from an area), CONTAINMENT (which is reducing the spread of established infestations from entering an uninfested area) and SUPPRESSION which is to reduce the density but not necessarily the total infested area.

RESTORATION
Develop and implement effective restoration methods for areas that have been degraded by invasive species and where suppression or control has taken place.

EDUCATION & OUTREACH
Increase public awareness and understanding of invasive species.

INNOVATION
Develop and implement innovative technologies that help us to better understand, visualize, alleviate or manage invasive species and their impacts or that serve to strengthen ecosystem function and/or processes.

Rob Williams
PRISM Coordinator

Megan Pistolese
Outreach and Education

Brittney Rogers
Aquatic Invasive Species

Robert Smith
Terrestrial Invasive Species

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